Engineering is a vast area of study whose history dates back to ancient Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks. Human beings have been applying their common sense for the betterment of society ever since the dawn of history. Ancient inventions such as pulley, lever, and wheel can also be categorized among the engineering endeavors of humans. Various wonders of ancient world such as the pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Parthenon in Greece and the Roman aqueducts are all among the marvels of ancient engineering. With the evolution of human throught and increase in knowledge, engineering also progressed and more braches of engineering flourished. At present, there are tens of broad braches of engineering which further have their own sub-categories. Some important braches of engineering are discussed here:
- Chemical Engineering:
Broadly speaking, Chemical engineering is the study of the interaction between different molecules and the way chemical processes take place to generate physical and chemical changes. These interactions are studied on both microscopic as well as macroscopic level. There are further sub-categories of Chemical Engineering that include agricultural engineering, biological engineering, material engineering and environmental engineering etc.
- Civil Engineering:
Civil engineering is probably the oldest and most widely known branch of engineering. Also, civil engineering is the one that is most dominant in our lives since it deals with the entire infrastructure of society. Common applications of civil engineering include houses, large buildings, bridges, roads and dams etc. Some of the sub-disciplines of civil engineering include architectural engineering and transportation engineering.
- Electrical Engineering:
Electrical engineering is one of the most important and advanced fields of engineering. This is the probably the field of engineering in which technology is involved more than any other field of engineering. Broadly speaking, the areas of physics such as electricity and magnetism and their applications are studied and implemented in electrical engineering. Important sub-categories of electrical engineering include telecom engineering, software engineering, electronics engineering, computer engineering and power engineering.
- Mechanical Engineering:
Mechanical engineering is a very broad field and the main areas of study of this field are motion, heat and the consequences of these entities. Laws of physics regarding motion and heat such as Newton’s laws and Laws of Thermodynamics are studied and their applications are implemented in Mechanical engineering. Some important sub-categories of mechanical engineering include aerospace engineering, automotive engineering and aeronautical engineering.
- Geological Engineering:
Geological engineering is the study of the interior structure of Earth and the changes that take place there. Internal elements of earth such as rocks, metals, fossils and minerals etc. are the point of focus of a geological engineer. Some of the sub-branches of geological engineering happen to be petroleum engineering, mining engineering and metallurgical engineering etc.
With the passage of time, the scope and the specialized categories of each of the engineering disciplines are increasing. If we talk about specialized categories and sub-categories, the number would be more than fifty. However, all of them can be included as the sub-categories of the engineering fields mentioned above.
The inquisitive and restless nature of man has always forced him to do something that truly satisfies his sense of adventure as well as aesthetics. Consequently, man has been constantly building architectural marvels throughout history. The wonders of ancient world are still considered to be the impeccable engineering feats. Some of the noteworthy engineering marvels of ancient as well as modern world are discussed below:
- The Great Pyramid of Giza:
Considered to be among the most remarkable marvels and engineering accomplishments of human history, the Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and the largest of all the ancient Egyptian pyramids. The perfect symmetry of the pyramid, its solid structure and exquisitely built interior chambers make it a true wonder of human history.
- The Great Wall of China:
One of the impeccable examples of engineering feats, the Great Wall of China was built between 5th century BC to 2nd century BC. This wall was mainly built to protect the locals from the invasion of nomadic tribes.
- Sydney Opera House:
One of the most beautiful buildings in the world is the Sydney Opera House. The design for Sydney Opera House was made by Danish architect Joran Utzon. The opera house showcases about 1,500 performances each year viewed by about 1.2 million people.
- Eiffel Tower:
One of the most iconic structures in the world, Eifel tower was constructed in 1889 and happens to be the highest building in France. The height of this tower is about 324 meters and it happens to be the most-visited paid engineering wonder of the world.
- Taj Mahal:
Taj Mahal is the famous white Marble mausoleum that was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in commemoration his wife Noor Jahan. The architecture of Taj Mahal, which combines Persian, Indian and Turkish styles, is considered to be one of the finest architectural marvels of the world.
- Empire State Building:
Empire State building was America’s tallest building from 1931 to 1972. The distinctive architectural design of this building and its cultural importance has made it one of the most famous buildings in the world. The height of Empire State Building happens to be 1,454 ft (443.2 m).
- The Karakoram Highway:
Modern feat of civil engineering, the Karakoram Highway is the highest paved road in the world built on some of the most difficult and adventurous mountains of the world. This road is the connection between Pakistan and China. It took about 20 years to complete this road and some 800 people died during the process.
- Golden Gate Bridge:
Golden Gate Bridge is the famous suspension bridge in San Francisco. This is one of the most beautiful and most photographed bridges in the world and was recently included in the modern engineering wonders of the world by the American Society of Civil engineers.
- Panama Canal:
Panama Canal is one of the biggest ship canals in the world that connects two of the biggest oceans in the world: Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This Canal is about 50 miles long international waterway due to which a journey of about 8000 miles round the continent is saved.
- The Internet:
Talking about the greatest technological achievements of mankind in the twentieth century, the Internet is certainly one of the marvels of engineering. The thing that has actually changed the world into a global village by connecting each and every corner of the world is Internet. With the advent of wireless technology, wonders of Internet have further increased.
Engineering is something that has penetrated each and every aspect of our life and with the increasing progress of technology, this penetration would constantly increase. When it comes to the best engineering colleges of the world, the competition is quite tough. However, usually the top of the list is occupied by renowned names which are discussed below:
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology – MIT:
In almost all of the lists discussing quality engineering schools in the world, MIT is usually at the top. The research accomplishments of MIT, the high class of its faculty and the tradition of excellence have made this engineering institute a standard of brilliance when it comes to engineering. The university was established in 1861.
- California Institute of Technology:
Located in Pasadena, California and famously known as Caltech, this university is highly selective when it comes to undergrad students and is famous for producing highly competitive and research oriented students.
- Stanford University:
Stanford has become a synonym of quality engineering education and research throughout years. Having a highly competitive undergrad curriculum, the university is certainly among the elite engineering colleges of the world. Stanford University is located in Palo Alto, San Francisco.
- University of California, Berkeley:
The undergrad engineering courses offered at Berkeley are considered to be among the very best in the world that explains the high level of research conducted at the university. The number of undergrad students at Berkeley is nearly 3000 which is one of the highest among the top engineering colleges.
- University of Cambridge:
University of Cambridge is the second oldest university in the United Kingdom and the seventh oldest university throughout the world. Having produced a wide range of scientists, engineers and philosophers, the university offers a variety of engineering disciplines at undergrad as well as graduate and post-graduate levels.
- University of Oxford:
Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and is widely considered to be a symbol of excellence. Although it is a general perception that humanities disciplines offered at Oxford are higher in quality compared to engineering disciplines, the engineering studies at Oxford are no less in brilliance. Oxford and Cambridge are the two British institutes that are almost always included in at the top end of the lists showcasing best engineering colleges of the world.
- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich:
Widely considered to be the best university in the continental Europe, ETH is located in Zurich. The university has a long history of excellence in the field of science and engineering, with 21 of its students and professors being awarded Nobel Prize in past, among them Albert Einstein included.
- Georgia Institute of Technology:
Commonly known as Georgia Tech, this university was founded in 1885 and is located in Atlanta, Georgia. The university has been offering courses in a variety of engineering disciplines ever since the beginning of the twentieth century.
- Imperial College, London:
Imperial College became an independent educational institute in 2007, before which it was a part of Federal University of London. Having a long history of Nobel Laureates and famous scientists, this college is widely considered among the very best engineering colleges in the world.
- University of Texas at Austin:
Shortly known as UT Austin, this university was established in 1883 and is located in Austin, Texas. UT Austin is among those universities of the US that have the largest enrollment of undergrad students. Various engineering disciplines are being offered at the university and the quality of those disciplines is self-evident.
No matter what profession or career anyone chooses to pursue they want to be sure to go to the best college or university they can. They have to know what the best places are to even apply to. Engineering colleges and universities are no different. Most engineering colleges and universities don’t exactly have talent scouts searching out a pro ball player; the applicant has to do all the leg work themselves. Fortunately this whole process has gotten many times easier with the advent of the internet. What could have taken countless days or weeks of searching and researching to find the right place to gain an engineering education now can be relegated to a few short hours.
The problem being when researching the best colleges and universities for an engineering degree every place you turn to seems to have their own top ten lists. So which is the best is really hard to determine. What can be done is to look objectively at some of the top places to go and make an informed choice from there.
One of the top engineering colleges in the nation is the University of California- Berkley.
They have seven engineering department including bioengineering, civil and environmental engineering, electrical and computer engineering, industrial engineering and operations research, materials sciences and engineering, mechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. These are all engineering departments on the cutting edge of what they teach and what they do.
Stanford University has a similar program available to prospective applicants but with a few department differences. Their departments include Aeronautics and Astronautics engineering, bioengineering, chemical engineering, computer science, civil and electrical engineering, management science and engineering, materials science and engineering and mechanical engineering. As with the University of California Berkley, Stanford University can attest to providing the best engineering education available in the states today.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology or as it is better known MIT offers even more engineering courses for the students and applicant to look at. These courses include Aeronautics and astronautics, biological engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, computation for design and optimization, computational and systems biology, Electrical engineering and computer science, Engineering systems, MIT health sciences and technology, leaders for global operations, materials sciences and operations, mechanical engineering, nuclear science and engineering, polymer science and engineering and systems design and management.
Now these three schools are arguably the top in the in the nation and there are a host of others. Even so where a person goes to receive an education takes in many more variables than just the school curriculum alone. Access to home and loved ones is a variable, whether the college location will result in a degree of culture shock is also one.
Engineering as a science is so old it may well predate language, when the first person used a stick as a lever or a rock as a step they were using engineering principles. Things are far more complicated today but taking a stop to really look at the institutions that can help you is a good first step.
There was a time when poker had been reserved for back rooms and smoke filled bars. However, times have changed a lot in the last few years. Today, poker is a nationally recognized game that has received global attention. It is a game that has grabbed the interest of millions of people around. Large tournaments like the world series of poker are televised and are followed by everyone who is interested in the game.
The world series of poker had initially been held in Las Vegas for publicity initially. Today, it is a televised event which attracts huge crowds for most of the events. There have even been various books written on the tournament that have been on the best selling list. Women as well as men know about the world series of poker and also about the people who win the tournament. Men like Mike Matusow who had recently won a whooping $1,000,000 at Las Vegas. For that particular tournament, the game had begun with 114 players. The final table itself lasted for over 11 hours. Mike faced tough competition against poker star Phil Hellmuth.
Players who made a name
One of the best things about the world series of poker is that there are a lot of personalities who participate in the tournament. Rene Angelil, the manger of Celine Dion had made it to the event. The huge variety of personalities and people that can be found at the tournament is nothing less than exciting. From movie stars to stay at home moms, over the years people from all walks of life have played at this massive tournament. One of the most well known and oldest legends to play in the tournament had been Doyle Brunson who played in the year 2005 at the world series of poker with a career of 50 years behind him. Although he did not really make it far in the tournament, he was still remembered for years.
Steve Dannenmann, a PokerStars.net mortgage broker and CPA from Maryland had also managed to get a lot of attention at the tournament’s main event by beating 5,617 players. He had been just one hand behind to achieve the status of the champion but instead ended up in the second place to Joseph Hachem. Nevertheless, Dannenmann won a prize money of $4,250,000. Despite his mild manners and personality, he had turned out to be a massive force with enormous talent in the tournament.
The world series of poker tournament is a fascinating and a very interesting event. Over the years, the event has grown in size and includes various different events. Today, players can even gain entry to this event through various satellite events that are organized prior to the event.
Poker tournaments online are action packed and exciting just as the tournaments offline. A large number of players today search for these tournaments on the internet since they are very easily available, are simple, practical and convenient for the players to participate. Several poker rooms today offer these poker tournaments with a wide range of game variations like stud poker, Omaha poker and Texas Hold’em. Other categories of games include No Limit, Pot Limit and Limit games.
How to sign up for a tournament
If you are eager to participate in online poker tournaments and are looking for information about some of the best tournaments around then the first thing you can do is to sign up for the newsletters of some of the most popular poker rooms online. This will allow you to get instant notifications of the future tournaments. Participating in a tournament online is easy. The entry fees can be as low as $6 or if you want you can also participate in high stake poker tournaments where the buy ins can be over $300. You will also be able to find multi table as well as single table tournaments.
If you simply want to play poker tournaments for fun you will also find that the software at various sites is fee and that you will not be required to deposit money for playing at some of the free tables and tournaments. Absolute Poker Download and Party Poker are two of the poker rooms that offer fee poker currently. You will also find weekly tournaments at Party Poker with prizes above $250,000 and trips to Vegas. There are also several informational portals online where you can get up to date information about tournaments taking place online.
Things to remember
Before you join in and participate in some of the online poker tournaments it would be wise to remember a few basic details. You should remember that there are different tournament categories like guaranteed prize tournaments, big prize poker tournaments, free roll tournaments etc. Since the rules of every partypoker tournament may be different you should also check the structure and the regulations carefully before you join a tournament so that you know what to expect. Also, if you are a new player and do not have much tournament experience then it would be best to first start with the free tournaments or with the low buy in tournaments to get some experience.
For players who are looking for the best possible tournaments online, check the directories and guides available on the internet that are independent and not affiliated or owned by any online casino since these would be able to give you objective and unbiased information. Check the reviews of the casinos organizing the tournament and its ratings before you sign up for their poker tournaments.
A common technique employed by top poker rooms for promoting their tournaments is to give guaranteed prizes in the pool. For achieving this, the online poker room must ascertain that the prize pool is the same size as the guarantee given and they can ensure this by putting in more money into the pool in case there are few players signing up for the tournament. This is one of the best ways for intermediate poker star players to gain exposure to competitive poker and a host of really attractive cash prizes besides lots of promotional offers, such as free vacations, a fancy set of wheels, bonuses etc.
Thus, for a poker room hosting a USD 200 + USD 15 tournament that has a guaranteed prize pool of USD 250,000 with 3000 players signing up for the event, the guarantee is not essential because of the large number of entrants, since the prize pool would be USD 60,000 – an amount much more than the guarantee! Thus, in such a case the poker room won’t need to put in more money to their prize pool; instead, it will make a good profit from their entry fees.
But, in the event that only 800 or so players sign up for the tournament, the prize pool value would be USD 160,000 only, which would require the poker room to give a guaranteed prize pool of USD 250,000 at the very least, so they’d need to put in USD 90,000 to make up the prize pool. This type of pokerstar.com tournament represent a huge opportunity for poker tournament players since all the prizes in this type of event has prizes valued at 56% more than the average prize pool of standard tournaments.
However, usually the tournaments with guaranteed prize pools manage to attract enough players so they are not required to add more money to boost the pool value, though sometimes, a few internet poke rooms may have to set their guarantee so high that the additional amount is necessary for enhancing the prize pool For example, Empire Poker!.
Another option for intermediate poker players is to improve their gaming strategies and enter competitive poker events at a lower level to win a seat at bigger events, such as moving from Satellite tournaments to Major Tournaments! There are many online poker rooms that regularly host satellite events awarding seats to players reaching the final tables for bigger live poker tournaments (land-based events, such as the WSOP!) For example, the World Series of Poker winners for years 2003 and 2004 both started their pro careers by winning seats for this top poker event via an internet satellite tournament.
Intermediate poker players need to understand how these satellites work in order to avail the best features of playing in competitive events to reach larger prizes such as seats to coveted land-based events, though some satellites may only offer cash prizes or paid entry for another tournament. The best way to select the poker room for winning bigger prizes then is to check out if they are guaranteeing a fixed number of seats and sign up with these rooms.
Quite a lot of players in online poker rooms tend to think that simply because they hid behind their computer screen they can do just what they want and how they want. However, just like brick and mortar casinos, there are many etiquettes that you should follow and take into consideration.
Generic poker strategy and etiquettes- do not be rude or angry towards others
Do not blame anyone else for your bad beats. If you are up against a poor player on FullTiltPoker who is spoiling the game for everyone else then it would be no use trying to teach the player how to play. Even if it makes you angry you will have to control yourself and not be rude or show your anger since it will not win you back your money. Understand that people play poker for fun and the entire environment would be spoiled when you get angry on someone.
Generic poker strategy and etiquettes- don’t talk about hands that are not yours
It is best not to give others advice about a hand when they are in the pot. When you play tough and go all in it would be up to the other players to decide for themselves if they want to fold or call. If someone else kept on telling you how to play your hand it would definitely be irritating and frustrating for you. Table talk is a different thing but giving direct advice to other players on their hands is not acceptable at all. Leveling is an acceptable strategy and you may still use it subtly.
Generic poker strategy and etiquettes- do not use profanities or be abusive in the chat
It is also not acceptable for the players to be abusive or berating someone else in the chat. You may simply upset others and they would simply leave the table and go. You may also make yourself angry and it would simply spoil your mood and your concentration levels.
Generic poker strategy and etiquettes- do not talk about the hands you fold
If you are in the download FullTiltPoker game and you fold a hand, it is best not to talk about the hand you folded to others. Doing so would influence others and would also spoil your game plan. It is best never to talk about a folded hand since players would get an idea about the kind of hands you play and the ones that you fold.
Generic poker strategy and etiquettes- keep pace with the action
When possible, react on time, especially the preflop actions. You may want to take time on some of the important decisions post flop but do not take too much time to make even the most basic decisions. When you slow the game down it would affect everyone on the table. Slow games can frustrate a lot of players and they may leave the table.
For those players who want to get the best poker bonuses, this article presents some practical tips for enhancing the bankroll while playing online with a bonus amount.
The bonus offered to new members by good poker home game websites for playing poker on their platform is a great way to build a bankroll since this privilege is especially designed for fresh entrants. It doesn’t cost the player anything to avail the bonus offer at the leading poker rooms online and the bonus can be a very profitable experience for those players who play a strategic game.
By taking advantage of these best bonus offers from poker sites during their sign up campaigns, banner adverts or email promotional offers, poker fans looking to boost their bankroll can try out the fun and endless earning possibility and unlimited gaming variety of internet poker rooms with low to high stakes, depending on their risk quotients and skill sets.
Searching for an online poker bonus is pretty easy as there is a variety of them advertised on several websites so those familiar with conducting simple online searches with specific keywords like ‘best poker bonus’ or ‘top poker bonus’ can expect to find the codes really quickly.
Another great source for pokerstar bonus codes is poker magazines that often feature large amounts like a hundred per cent match up given to new members, as long as they deposit at least $500. So, only if you are a highly skilled player confident of getting that extra 500 USD should you opt for such a tempting sign up deal since the amount is not immediately sent to the player’s account but held in the bonus account till the time it is cleared.
So, if you want to clear your internet poker bonus for such a high deposit amount that entitled you to it in the first place, you need to play all your games smartly with a focus on winning. Your poker bonus code is cleared only when you have successfully played the required number of raked hands as dictated by the terms of the sign up conditions of your chosen website. The number of requisite raked hands differs from website to website but most sites require new players to play ten times the bonus amount for qualifying for clearing the bonus. That means that to clear a $100 sign up amount, you’d need to play 1000 hands.
However, if that does not apply to your chosen website, you may be required to come up with a rake equal to the bonus amount through cash plays at the same site, such as in tournament plays. So the criterion for playing raked hands are no longer the only one for clearing bonus amounts since by playing tournaments you can acquire the necessary number of points for getting your bonus released.
Online poker professionals also advice that for clearing the best bonus codes, the actual experience must be quick and easy, which is why it is smart to stick with a website that ensures the bonus due to you is released efficiently and within the said time limit so you avoid having to forfeit the bonus and the money you have earned with it. Thereafter you can withdraw this money and deposit it at another site of your choice, if you so wish.
Engineering as people understand it today encompasses a very large platform. Simply by definition it covers a multitude of disciplines and sub disciplines. Engineering is a science, math and an art all at the same time bringing together aspects of social, economic, and practical applications to design and build structures and machinery. Not only this but systems, devices and their processes, all in hopes of bettering the world we live in. Even so, that is most general generic definition of engineering.
Engineering by definition may have been began earlier than we could have possibly recorded, perhaps even predating language. The very first person to use a stick as a lever or rolled a rock to a given place to stand on used engineering. The word engineering derives itself from a 1325 reference. An engineer was one who worked on military engines of war, like a ballista or a catapult. Some of the earliest pioneers of engineering we recognize today would be the Romans, the Greeks and the Egyptians. Considering the tools and the resources they had to work within their times the engineering feats they accomplished were nothing short of miraculous. The aqua duct, the Parthenon, the great pyramids, the Great Wall of China, not to mention what was accomplished by the Aztec and Incan empires in South America were and still are engineering wonders.
While these are great examples of engineering architecture it wasn’t until the invention of the steam engine that mechanical engineering came into its own. The first steam engine was developed and built by Thomas Savery back in 1698. This single event would enable mass production and in the coming decades usher in the industrial revolution. The electrical motor was brought into existence in 1872 and this created an entirely new field which when coupled with the mechanical engineering brought huge advancements. Electrical engineering has grown so rapidly and so large that now it has far surpassed all other forms of engineering disciplines. It was not too much longer when chemical engineering, in the late nineteenth century, complimented the industrial revolution and took it even further.
It goes without saying that the invention of the automobile and then the airplane soon after brought forth a wave of engineering achievements the world had never seen. The engineering advancements of the 20th century alone are perhaps equal to all that had transpired up to that point in history. Engineering at this present day has brought us to a level of technology that, in very many ways, is advancing faster than we can keep up with it. It seems anymore that no sooner is one form of technology or advancement available to industry, medicine or the public than there is something superior already waiting to take its place.
The four main branches of engineering as we know them are chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. Many of the disciplines and sub disciplines of these branches have to overlap their knowledge to further their individual goals; this usually requires an engineer to be proficient in a various number of disciplines that may at times seem irrelevant to his own calling.